MPT 1483: VISUAL TECHNOLOGY PRODUCTION : This course gives exposures on theories and skills of design and production of visual static media. Besides the conventional methods to produce visual-based materials, this course will be focused more on the use of a digital camera and computer to produce quality of images. Several photography techniques, approaches in developing of digital images, and image manipulation techniques will be shared in this course to produce excellent and quality images. Using the digital images, students will develop a complete package of teaching and learning materials based on visual as a medium. The package will be tested and evaluated by a group of target users.

Important: This document provides background information. For instructions on how to resize photos, go to Cropping, resizing, retouching, and transforming photos in Photoshop Elements Help, Image size and resolution in Photoshop Help, or see additional links in the Related Content panel at right.

You can resize images in several ways using Adobe Photoshop and Adobe Photoshop Elements. Each way to resize an image has advantages and drawbacks. To get the best result when you resize images, you should understand the concepts behind and the results of each method of resizing. These concepts affect how the crop tool options operate as well. If you resize and crop images without being aware of the concepts involved, then you may see unexpected results.

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Image sizes on the screen and in print

The size of an image when you view it on the screen is different from the size of an image when you print it. If you understand these differences, then you can develop a better understanding of which settings to change when you resize an image.

Screen size

The screen resolution of your monitor is the number of pixels that your monitor can display. For example, a monitor with a screen resolution of 640×480 pixels will display 640 pixels for the width and 480 pixels for the height. There are several different screen resolutions you can use, and the physical size of the monitor screen usually determines the resolutions available. For example, large monitors typically display higher resolutions than small monitors because they have more pixels.

To find out what your screen resolution is, choose Start > Control Panel > Display > Settings and look at the screen resolution (Windows) or System Preferences > Displays and look in the resolution section (Mac OS).

Image size on the screen

Images are of a fixed pixel size when they appear on your monitor. Your screen resolution determines how large the image appears to be. A monitor set to 640×480 pixels displays fewer pixels than a monitor displaying 1024×768 pixels, so each of the pixels on the 640×480 pixel monitor will be larger than each of the pixels displayed on the 1024×768 pixel monitor.

An image of 100×100 pixels will take up approximately 1/6 of the screen at 640×480, but it will only take up approximately 1/10 of the screen at 1024×768, so the image will look smaller at 1024×768 pixels than at 640×480 pixels.

Image size in print

The other values used in resizing images, the physical size of the image when printed, and the resolution (the number of pixels per inch), aren’t used in calculations until the image is printed. When you go to print, the physical size of the image, the resolution, and the pixel dimensions interact to determine the amount of data in the image and its print quality. In general, higher resolution images print at a higher quality. See the sections that follow for more information on resolution and physical size in the below sections.

Image Size dialog box

When you use the Image Size dialog box to resize your images, or when you use the Crop tool options bar to crop, and consequently resize, your images, four aspects of your image can change:

  • the pixel dimensions, which is the width and height of the image in pixels – in the Pixel Dimension section
  • the file size of the image when it’s open in Photoshop – in the Pixel Dimension section
  • the physical size of the image when printed, in width and height – in the Document Size section
  • the resolution of the image when printed (the amount of data in the image for printing), which is the number of pixels per inch or per centimeter – in the Document Size section. The resolution is the amount of detail in the image.

Note: See the Image size formulas section of this document for some simple formulas you can use to understand how Photoshop and Photoshop Elements determine the size of an image.

The Image Size dialog box allows you to resize your images in two ways: by increasing or decreasing the amount of data in the image (resampling) or by maintaining the same amount of data in the image (referred to in this document as resizing without resampling). When you resample, the image quality may degrade to some extent and you may have to do some extra work afterward to compensate for the results, such as using the Unsharp Mask filter to sharpen your image.

To reset the Image Size dialog box to its original state, the Cancel button can be changed to a Reset button by holding down the Alt (Windows) or the Option (Mac OS) key.

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Resizing and resampling images

When you resize an image and resample it, you change the amount of data in that image.To resample your image, ensure Resample Image is checked at the bottom of the Image Size dialog box. Resample is on by default.

Resampling changes the total n umber of pixels in the image, which are displayed as Width and Height in pixels in the Image Size dialog box in the Pixel Dimensions section. When you increase the number of pixels in this section of the dialog box (upsampling), the application adds data to the image, and when you decrease the number of pixels (downsampling), the application removes data. Whenever data is removed from or added to the image, the image quality degrades to some extent. Removal of data from an image is usually preferable to the addition of data, because upsamping requires that Photoshop or Photoshop Elements guess which pixels to add; this is a more complex procedure than guessing which pixels to remove, when you downsample. You will get the best results working with images that you bring into Photoshop in the proper resolution for the output you want. You may get the results you need by resizing your image without resampling. However, if you need to resample your images, you’ll want to do so only once.

When you check, or turn on, Resample, you can change any or all of the three values in the Image Size dialog box: pixel dimensions, physical size, or resolution. If you change one value, then you will effect the others; the pixel dimensions are always affected.

  • If you change the pixel dimensions, then you will affect the physical size, but not the resolution.
  • If you change the resolution, then you will affect the pixel dimensions, but not the physical size.
  • If you change the physical size, then you will change the pixel dimensions, but not the resolution.

You cannot set the file size; it changes when you change the total amount of data in the image (the pixel dimensions). If you note the file size value before you change the other values in the dialog box, then you can use the file size information to understand how much data will be removed or added to your image when you resample the image. For example, if the file size changes from 250 KB to 500 KB, you’ll be adding twice as much data to the image, which may seriously degrade the image. Degraded images may look blurry, or jagged or blocky.

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Resizing images without resampling

When you resize an image and do not resample it, you change the size of the image without changing the amount of data in that image. Resizing without resampling changes the physical size of the image without changing the pixel dimensions in the image; no data is added to or removed from the image. When you uncheck, or turn off, Resample, the pixel dimension fields are not available, and the only two values you can change are the physical size (Width and Height in Document Size) or the resolution (pixels/inch). When you resize without resampling, you can set either the physical size, or the resolution of the image. To keep the total amount of pixels in the image the same, Photoshop compensates for the value you set by increasing or decreasing the other value. For example, if you set the physical size, Photoshop changes the resolution.

When the pixel dimensions are constant and you decrease the physical size of an image, the resolution increases correspondingly. If you decrease the physical size of an image by half, the resolution doubles, because twice as many pixels can fit into the same space. If you double the size of an image, the resolution decreases by half, because the pixels need to be twice as far apart to fit the physical size.

For example, you have an image that has a width and height of 400 x 400 pixels, has a physical size of 4×4 inches, and has a resolution of 100 pixels/inch. If you want to reduce the physical size of the image by half without resampling, you set the physical size to 2×2 inches, and Photoshop increases the resolution to 200 pixels/inch. Resizing the image this way keeps the total number of pixels constant (200 ppi x 2×2 inches = 400×400 pixels). If you double the physical size (to 8×8 inches), then the resolution will decrease to 50 pixels/inch, because adding more inches to the image’s size means there can only be half as many pixels in each inch. If you want to change the image resolution, the physical size will change in response.

Important: The amount of data in an image is controlled by the pixel dimensions, and the resolution and the physical size are used only for printing.

Note: PPI (pixels per inch) is different from DPI (dots per inch). PPI is the number of pixels in each inch of the image (as described in this section), and DPI relates only to printers, and varies from printer to printer. Generally there are 2.5-3 dots of ink per pixel. For example, a 600 DPI printer only requires a 150-300 PPI image for best quality printing.

For information about the other options in the Image Size dialog box, see Choosing an Interpolation Method and Changing the Print Dimensions and Resolution of an Image in Photoshop Help, or To change the print dimensions and resolution of an image and To resample an image in Photoshop Elements Help.

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Using the Crop tool to resize images

Using the term resamping when you use the Crop tool to resize images is unclear because there is no Resample option to select when you use the Crop tool. When you use the Crop tool to resize an image, the pixel dimensions (and consequently, the file size) can change, even though the image is not being resampled. In these cases, the pixel dimensions and resolution change to incorporate more pixels into each inch of the image based on the number of pixels you select in the crop region, though Photoshop is not specifically adding or removing data from the image. Because of the way the Crop tool handles pixel dimensions, indicating that the amount of data in the image has changed is more useful than indicating whether or not the image has been resampled.

When you crop an image, you are removing data from or adding data to the original image’s size to create a new image. Because you are removing or adding data relative to the original image, the concept of resampling loses much of its meaning because the number of pixels per inch can vary based on the number of pixels in the crop selection. When the number of pixels in the crop selection allows, Photoshop will try to keep the same resolution of the original image; this is traditionally considered cropping without resampling. However, when you are not exact about the number of pixels you select, the pixel dimensions and file size changes in the new image.

Crop tool options

The options in the crop tool options bar are different before and after you draw the crop selection. When you first select the crop tool, you can set values to crop to a specific width and height, and resolution. The units of measurement available for the crop size width and height are inches, centimeters, millimeters, points, and picas. To make sure you are using the right unit, type the unit or the unit abbreviation after the number in the value field, for example: 100px, 1 in or 1 inch,10cm, 200 mm, 100 pt,, or 100 pica. When you specify values for height and width, the crop selection contains only the four corner change points of the 8 change points available when no height and width values are specified.

Note: If you do not specify a unit of measure in the Width and Height fields in the Crop tool bar, the default unit of measure is inches.

You can also set a value for the resolution of the cropped image in the Resolution field, and then choose pixels/inch or pixels/cm from the pop-up menu.

To review the options available after you draw the crop selection, see Using the Crop tool in Photoshop Help, or To crop an image and Crop tool options in Photoshop Elements Help.

To clear the values from a previous crop, click Clear before you draw your crop selection. After you draw the crop selection, you can clear the crop selection by clicking the Cancel button in the options bar or pressing the Escape key, or you can accept the crop by clicking on the Commit button in the options bar or pressing the Enter key.

Changing inch size only

When you set the physical size of the image in inches in the Crop tool options, and you don’t change the resolution, the pixel dimensions change based on the ratio of the number of pixels you drew in the crop selection to the original pixel dimensions of the original image. The resolution then changes to fit the extra pixels into each inch of the image, based on the image’s original size.

Note: The original image used in the examples below is 4×4 inches, 100 ppi, 400×400 pixels at 468.8 KB.

Inch size
(you set)
Resolution
(changed by Photoshop)
Pixel dimensions
(size of the crop selection that you drew)
File size
2×2 in 104 ppi
(original res = 100 ppi)
208×208 px
(original = 400×400 px)
125.8 KB
(original 468.8 KB)

In this example, the image is reduced by half of the physical size (from 4 inches square to 2 inches). The pixel dimensions are reduced by half as well. The original resolution (100 ppi) is maintained, except it’s increased to compensate for the extra pixels (8 pixels/inch) added to the crop rectangle.

Changing inch size and resolution

When you set the physical size of the image in inches in the Crop tool options, and you also change the number of pixels per inch (the resolution), the pixel dimensions change to accommodate your request for more or fewer pixels in the document as a whole. You set the inches and the number of pixels in each of those inches. Photoshop removes or adds data to fit the number of pixels in each of the inches you specified.

Note: The original image used in the examples below is 4×4 inches, 100 ppi, 400×400 pixels at 468.8 KB.

Inch size
(you set)
Resolution
(you set)
Pixel dimensions
(changed)
File size
2×2 in 200 ppi 400×400 px 468.8 KB
2×2 in 300 ppi 600×600 px 1.03 MB
2×2 in 50 ppi 100×100 px 29.3 KB

In the first example, you reduced the physical size by half, but balanced that by doubling the resolution, so the pixel dimensions and file size were able to remain the same.

In the second example, you reduced the physical size by half, and increased the resolution, so the pixel dimensions had to increase to hold the extra number of pixels per inch. The file size also increased.

In the third example, you reduced the physical size by half, and reduced the resolution (the number of pixels per inch), so the pixel dimensions decreased because there are fewer pixels now in the image. The file size also decreased.

Changing the pixel dimension only

When you set the pixel dimensions, but you do not set the resolution, the resolution stabilizes at the same resolution as the original image, and the a new physical size is produced to hold the number of pixels specified in the image and per inch.The file size changes because you are changing the pixel dimensions while letting Photoshop stabilize the number of pixels per inch.

Note: The original image used in the examples below is 4×4 inches, 100 ppi, 400×400 pixels at 468.8 KB.

Inch size
(changed)
Resolution
(changed)
Pixel dimensions
(you set)
File size
2×2 in 100 ppi 200×200 px 117.2 KB
3×3 in 100 ppi 300×300 px 263.7 KB
6×6 in 100 ppi 600×600 px 1.03 MB

In these examples, when you set the pixel dimensions and the resolution is unchanged from the original image, the physical size must change to fit the number of pixels you specified (pixel dimensions) that you want held in each inch of the image.

Changing the pixel dimension and the resolution

When you set the pixel dimensions and you set the resolution, Photoshop creates a new physical size to hold the number of pixels in the image and number of pixels per inch that you specified. The files size changes because you are changing the total number of pixels in the image as well as setting the number of pixels you want in each inch.

Note: The original image used in the examples below is 4×4 inches, 100 ppi, 400×400 pixels at 468.8 KB.

Inch size
(changed)
Resolution
(you set)
Pixel dimensions
(you set)
File size
1×1 in 600 ppi 600×600 px 1.03 MB
2×2 in 300 ppi 600×600 px 1.03 MB
.667x .667 in 300 ppi 200×200 px 117.2 KB

In these examples, when you set the pixel dimensions and change the resolution, the physical size must change to fit the total number of pixels and the number of pixels in each inch that you specified (pixel dimensions and resolution).

Changing the resolution only

When you change only the resolution in Crop tools options, the size of the new image depends on the number of pixels you includ in your crop selection

Note: You can open the Info palette to find out how many pixels you are including in your crop selection.

Note: The original image used in the examples below is 4×4 inches, 100 ppi, 400×400 pixels at 468.8 KB.

Inch size
(result)
Resolution
(you set)
Pixel dimensions
(result)
Your crop size
(you drew)
File size
.767x.767 in 300 ppi 230×230 px 2.3×2.3 in 115 KB
1×1 in 300 ppi 300×300 px 3×3 in 263.7 KB
75x.75 in 400 ppi 300×300 px 3×3 in 263.7 KB
1×1 in 200 ppi 200×200 px 2×2 in 117.2 KB
.5x.5 in 200 ppi 100×100 px 1×1 in 29.3 KB
1.5×1.5 in 200 ppi 300×300 px 3×3 in 263.7 KB

In these examples, Photoshop uses the size of your crop selection, and the number of pixels per inch you specify (the resolution) to resize the image. The new image’s physical size and pixel dimensions will fit the number of pixels in the crop selection you drew and the new resolution you set.

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Image size formulas

The following formulas provide information about how Photoshop and Photoshop Elements calculate the physical size, resolution, and pixel dimensions of an image:

  • Physical size = Resolution x Pixel Dimensions
  • Resolution = Physical Size / Pixel Dimensions
  • Pixel Dimensions = Physical Size / Resolution

Adobe Captivate Demo of resizing and resampling concepts

The Adobe Captivate demonstration below illustrates adjusting image size and resolution, with and without using the Resample Image option in the Image size dialog box. For more information about viewing this demo, see Viewing Adobe Captivate Demos in Knowledgebase Documents (TechNote kb403894).

One of the most commonly asked questions in relation to graphics software is how to increase the size of an image without getting blurring and jagged edges. New users are often surprised when they resize an image and find that the quality is severely degraded. Experienced users are all too familiar with the problem. The reason for the degradation is because bitmapped, or raster, image types are limited by their pixel resolution. When you attempt to resize these types of images, your software either has to increase the size of each individual pixel – resulting in a jagged image – or it has to “guess” at the best way to add pixels to the image to make it larger.

Not long ago, there weren’t many options for increasing resolution other than using your editing software’s built-in resampling methods. Today, we are faced with more possibilities than ever. Of course, it’s always best to capture the resolution you need right from the beginning. If you have the option to rescan an image at a higher resolution, by all means, you should do that before resorting to software solutions. And if you have the money to put into a camera capable of higher resolutions, you might find that money is better spent than if you were to put it into a software solution. Having said that, there are often times when you may have no other choice than to resort to software. When that time comes, here’s the information you should know.

Resizing vs. Resampling
Most software only has one command for both resizing and resampling. Resizing an image involves changing the print dimensions without changing the total pixel dimensions. As the resolution is increased, the print size becomes smaller, and vice versa. When you increase resolution without changing pixel dimensions, there is no loss in quality, but you must sacrifice print size. Resizing an image using resampling, however, involves changing the pixel dimensions and will always introduce a loss in quality. That’s because resampling uses a process called interpolation for increasing the size of an image. The interpolation process estimates the values of the pixels the software needs to create based on the existing pixels in the image. Resampling via interpolation results in serious blurring of the resized image, especially in areas where there are sharp lines and distinct changes in color.
About Image Size & Resolution

Common Interpolation Methods
Photo editing software generally offers a few different interpolation methods for calculating new pixels when an image us upsampled. Here are descriptions of the three methods available in Photoshop. If you don’t use Photoshop, your software probably offers similar options although they may use slightly different terminology.

  • Bicubic is the slowest but produces the best estimation of new pixel values.
  • Bilinear is faster than bicubic, but does a poorer job. Both bicubic and bilinear interpolation result in a blurred image, especially when upsampling.
  • Nearest Neighbor doesn’t use interpolation. It simply takes the value of the neighboring pixels and adds new pixels without averaging them. This is when you get the jaggies or stair-step effect.

Note that there are more than just these three methods of interpolation and even using the same method in different software may produce different results. In my experience, I have found that Photoshop offers the best bicubic interpolation of any other software that I have compared.

Here’s a question and answer from a reader’s real-world problem of dealing with image resolution. This is pretty typical of what most people have to deal with when they are asked for an image to use in publication…

“Someone wants to buy a photo from me. They need it to be 300 DPI, 5×8 inches. The photo I have is a 702K, 1538 x 2048 jpeg. I figure it has to be big enough! But how do I tell? The only photo program I have is Paint.NET, and I’m not sure it’s telling me what I want to know. If I don’t mess with it, it tells me that my resolution is 180 pixels/inch, at a size of approximately 8 x 11. If I make it 300 pixels/inch (is that the same as DPI?) I can get a print size that works, about 5 x 8, and it changes the pixel width to 1686 x 2248. Is that what I’m supposed to be doing??? It doesn’t seem like much of a change to the human eye.”

A lot of this confusion is because most people don’t use the right terminology. They say DPI when they should be saying PPI (pixels per inch). Your photo is 1538 x 2048 and you need a print size of 5×8 inches… the math you need is:

pixels/inch=PPI
1538/5=307
2048/8=256

That means that 256 is the maximum PPI you can get from this image to print the longest side at 8 inches without letting your software add new pixels. When your software has to add or take away pixels, it is called resampling, and it does result in a loss of quality. The more drastic the change, the more obvious the loss in quality will be. In your example it is not very much, so the loss won’t very noticeable… as you noted. In a case of this small of a change, I generally prefer to print the lower PPI image. It usually prints fine. But since you are sending this out to someone, you’ll just have to accept the resampling to make it 300 PPI.
More on Resampling

Ukuran Dokumen, Dimensi Pixel dan Resolusi Gambar Digital

Hal tersebut menjadi hal ketiga yang harus diketahui ketika kita akan mengedit sebuah gambar digital yaitu :

DIMENSI PIXEL
Merupakan ukuran yang digunakan untuk menentukan banyaknya pixel yang terdapat dalam gambar digital kita jika dilihat di layar monitor komputer. Biasanya dimensi pixel hanya dijumpai pada tipe gambar bitmap, dan ukuran unitnya berupa : pixel atau percent.
Contoh :
Dimensi pixel dari sebuah foto dengan ukuran dokumen width 21 cm x height 29.7 cm adalah sebesar width 2480 pixel x height 3508 pixel (dalam photoshop), atau
Dimensi pixel dari sebuah foto dengan ukuran dokumen width 21 cm x height 29.7 cm adalah sebesar width 100% x height 100% (dalam photoshop)

UKURAN DOKUMEN
Juga disebut sebagai Bidang Kerja Merupakan ukuran yang digunakan untuk menentukan besar dari sebuah gambar digital tersebut dalam ukuran nyata (setelah diprint atau dicetak). Ukuran dokumen selalu dijumpai dalam software-software pengolah gambar bitmap dan vector, dan ukuran unitnya berupa : cm, inch, mm, m, dll
Contoh :
Ukuran asli / bidang kerja dari sebuah foto yang akan kita edit di Photoshop adalah width 21 cm x height 29.7 cm
Ukuran asli / bidang kerja dari sebuah dokumen yang kita buat dalam Corel Draw adalah width 21 cm x height 29.7 cm

RESOLUSI (DPI)
Merupakan ukuran yang digunakan untuk menentukan banyaknya pixel dari sebuah gambar digital tersebut dalam ukuran nyata (setelah diprint atau dicetak). Ukuran resolusi ini sangat mempengaruhi komposisi besaran PIXEL DIMENSI dari sebuah gambar digital, dimana hal ini berkaitan dalam proses cetak baik separasi maupun digital. Satuan unitnya berupa pixels/inch dan pixels/cm, tapi biasanya yang paling sering digunakan adalah pixel/inch.

Dalam proses cetak ada beberapa standar-standar DPI dalam menentukan besar dari resolusi gambar digital.

Untuk produksi cetakan yang biasa dilihat mata kurang dari jarak 1 meter, standar resolusi yang dianjurkan adalah antara 225 dan 300 DPI. Contohnya berupa berupa design brosur, majalah, koran, tabloid, kartu nama, dll.

Untuk produksi cetakan yang biasa dilihat mata dari jarak 1-2 meter, standar resolusi yang dianjurkan adalah 150 dan 200 DPI. Contohnya berupa design poster.

Untuk produksi cetakan yang biasa dilihat mata dari jarak lebih dari 5 meter dan produksi cetakan digital printing, standar resolusi yang dianjurkan adalah 72 DPI. Contohnya berupa design spanduk, umbul-umbul, x-banner, billboard, dll.

blog perdana repro | artikel & tips grafika

Resolusi kamera yang tepat untuk mencetak hasil foto

Saat melakukan pengambilan gambar foto dengan kamera digital, kita dapat mengatur resolusi kamera sesuai dengan kebutuhan. Untuk foto yang akan digunakan di internet atau dikirim melalui e-mail, kita dapat mengatur pada resolusi yang lebih rendah. Jika foto tersebut ingin dicetak, maka kita harus menggunakan resolusi yang lebih tinggi.

Menentukan resolusi yang tepat untuk foto yang ingin dicetak, tergantung dari seberapa besar foto tersebut akan dicetak.Tabel berikut akan membantu menentukan resolusi yang tepat untuk ukuran foto yang akan dicetak.

Sebelum melihat bagaimana jumlah resolusi berkaitan dengan ukuran cetak foto, perlu diingat juga bahwa resolusi bukan satu-satunya faktor yang menentukan dalam kualitas foto dan kualitas cetak. Beberapa faktor-faktor ini juga memainkan peranan penting dalam menentukan bagaimana hasil foto digital dapat terlihat bagus di monitor komputer ataupun di atas kertas.

  1. Pencahayaan yang tepat
  2. Kualitas lensa
  3. Kualitas kamera
  4. Auto-fokus pada subjek yang tepat
  5. Kecepatan rana yang tepat untuk benda bergerak atau stasioner

Dengan menentukan ukuran hasil cetak foto dapat membantu kita juga pada saat menentukan jenis kamera yang ingin kita beli. Jika kita ingin membuat cetakan besar sepanjang waktu, maka perlu membeli model kamera dengan resolusi maksimal yang besar. Di sisi lain, jika kita hanya akan ingin membuat sesekali cetakan kecil, maka kita dapat memilih kamera digital yang menawarkan jumlah resolusi yang lebih kecil.

Tabel ini akan memberi gambaran mengenai jumlah resolusi yang sesuai dengan ukuran foto yang akan dicetak. Ukuran resolusi yang tercantum di tabel ini tidak “menjamin” bisa membuat kualitas cetak selalu bagus, tetapi setidaknya akan memberikan titik awal untuk menentukan ukuran cetak.

Ukuran Resolusi pada desain cetakan

Untuk menghasilkan hasil cetak yang berkualitas dan hasil yang maksimal kita perlu memahami resolusi gambar / desain. Mengapa Perlu diperhatikan! Berikut ini beberapa tips yang berguna agar hasil cetakan menjadi maksimal.

Software untuk membuat desain itu banyak sekali, mulai yang gratisan dan juga yang bayar. Tapi software atau program desain yang populer diantaranya adalah :

1. Corel Graphics Suite
– CorelDRAW
– Corel PHOTO-PAINT
2. Macromedia Freehand
3. Adobe Photoshop
4. Adobe Illustrator
5. Adobe Indesign
6. Adobe Page Maker (sekarang sudah tidak ada versi baru)

Yang dimaksud resolusi disini adalah jika hasil desain kita di simpan atau di export ke file yang ber-extensi .TIFF atau .PSD. Trus resolusi yang bagus untuk sebuah desain yang akan dicetak itu berapa resolusinya ?. Untuk standar percetakan, biasanya resolusi yang bagus itu 300 dpi.

Resolusi 300 dpi
Untuk pembuatan buku, kalender, kwitansi, brosur, kartu nama atau sejenisnya (yang ukurannya tidak terlalu besar)

Resolusi 50 dpi s/d 200 dpi
Resolusi dengan ukuran tersebut cukup untuk membuat banner, x-banner, backdrop, spanduk digital, roll banner, oneway visio, dan sejenisnya (yang ukurannya agak besar) Trus apakah resolusinya tidak terlalu kecil? gambarnya atau hasilnya pecah gak? kalau ditanya seperti itu, saya jawab “cukup”.

Resolusi Untuk Banner, X-Banner, Baliho dll :
Ukuran sekitar 10 meter = 35dpi
Ukuran sekitar 5 meter = 100 dpi
Ukuran sekitar 2 meter = 150 dpi
Ukuran sekitar 1 meter = 200 dpi

Sumber : http://www.maxindo-pt.co.id

Image Manipulation

What is “image manipulation?  It is a fancy way to describe retouching photographs and/or adding filters and special effects to photographs digitally.  Most photographs do not need any retouching, etc however, touching up or adding subtle effects to special photographs, especially ones that will be printed larger than 8×10, can make a huge difference.  Below are a few examples of how I enhanced some of my photographs using Photoshop to increase their visual impact.

 

 

By removing the color from the background, more focus is directed toward the girls.

 

Adjusting color saturation, focus, and texture gives this photo a special feel.

 

Even a dreary day in Montreal can have a unique atmosphere by adjusting color.

 

Again, I removed background color and added a bevel and border.

 

Adjusting the background brightness and contrast draws attention to the couple.

 

Many hours went into “decorating” this golf course photo for a holiday advertisement.

 

This family vacation montage incorporates fifteen photos into one.

 

By photographing each class separately (approx. 15 photos) and combining them together as one school-wide photo, nearly all the children have good expressions and the “atmosphere” of the school appears to be more open and relaxed – as opposed to the standard “military style” class photo where everyone is standing in straight rows.

 

I added the lake and CAD drawing of the gym/barn onto the present-day building site to help visualize this future goal in a fund raising drive.

The time needed to touch up or enhance most photographs is approximately 1 hour ($50.00).  Most of the photographs above took an average of 1 hour each to enhance.  The golf course ad, family vacation  montage, and the Mission Springs photographs took an average of 8-10 hours each for image manipulation and design. The flexibility and creativity now available through this form of digital image manipulation offer endless opportunities for me to visually capture your memories, your friends, and your loved ones in a truly unique way.

Menghasilkan efek hitam putih dan berwarna

Oleh webmaster
Dikirim pada Thursday 15 July 2004
Kali ini saya akan menunjukkan Tips efek dengan mencampuraduk bahagian berwarna dan hitam putih. Ini sangat mudah bagi mereka yang telah mahir dengan perisian Photoshop.

Ini adalah asas tutorial bagaimana untuk menghasilkan warna imej warna campuran hitam dan putih.

Kepada mereka yang baru ingin berjinak-jinak untuk menggunakan Photoshop, inilah masanya untuk mempelajari asas dan saya percaya tips ini selain bermanfaat ia juga sangat menghiburkan.

Mari kita mulakan.

Bayangkan saya telah mengambil gambar foto menggunakan kamera digital dan telah dipindah turunkan ke dalam PC saya. Saya kemudiannya mengaktifkan program Photoshop, dan memilih File dan Open, dan telah memilih gambar imej yang relevan.

Dalam kes ini, saya akan manipulasi imej berikut:

Setelah imej dibuka, saya menekan Ctrl-A untuk memilih semua (select all). Ini akan meletakkan mask (garisan kecil bertitik) disekitar kawasan imej tersebut. Kemudian saya menekan Ctrl-C (menyalin) dan saya pergi ke menu File, dan pilih New. Ini akan membawa satu image properties dengan dimensi kawasan yang telah saya salin tadi, dan saya tukarkan karakter fail baru dari RGB ke Grayscale.

Ini akan menghasilkan satu salinan imej dalam hitam putih:

Di dalam imej baru ini, saya menekan Ctrl-A untuk memilih seluruh kawasan, dan menekan Ctrl-C untuk menyalin. Sekarang saya boleh menutup imej hitam putih ini (tidak perlu disimpan). Di bawah tetingkap ini terdapat imej asal yang berwarna. Dengan menekan Ctrl-V, saya menindih (paste)
imej hitam putih di atas imej berwarna tadi, dengan layer berasingan. Saya mahukan imej hitam putih berada di layer teratas, jadi saya pergi ke layers pallete dan heret (drag) layer ke bawah.

OK sekarang saya perlukan imej berwarna duduk diatas imej putih. Saya membuat zoom ke starfish (layer berwarna) dan cuba memilih kawasan yang membentuk ikan starfish itu. Dalam kes saya, saya menggunakan tool magic mask dan juga elliptical tool (utk mendapatkan sudut bulatan starfish). Setiap kali saya memilih kawasan itu, saya terpaksa menekan butang shift untuk memudahkan pilihan baru dibuat. Jika saya dapati saya memilih terlalu banyak kawasan, saya cuma undo aksi terakhir (last action) atau pergi balik menggunakan history. Setelah pemilihan dibuat pada starfish keseluruhannya, saya songsangkan (inverse) pilihan tadi dan menekan butang delete. Ini akan membuang seluruh layer berwarna, kecuali ikan starfish.

Barangkali ada jalan untuk melakukan ini dengan mudah, tapi bagi saya method yang saya jelaskan tadi tidak menjadi masalah bagi saya. Anda perlu sama menggunakan eraser dan perlahan-lahan membuang bahagian detail pada starfish, perlahan-lahan dedahkan warna hitam/putih disebalik imej tersebut.

Dan keputusannya.. ? Ini dia:

Mungkin tiada yang menariknya pada imej sebegini, tapi sekurang-kurangnya ia menunjukkan efek yang berhubungkait dengan kemudahan yang ada pada Photoshop. Teknik yang sama boleh digunakan untuk semua jenis keadaan dan senario. Contohnya, jika anda mempunyai gambar produk, anda boleh membuang gambar background produk tersebut jika anda mahu.

Semua kerja tangan ini berhasil menggunakan resolusi imej yang tinggi, jadi ketidaksempurnaan hasil kerja is pretty much unnoticeable pada imej yang sekecil ini.

Tips gambar lebih sharp : Focus Lock

Kaedah Mengfokus

Titik focus didalam kamera membenarkan anda mengawal dimana anda ingin focus didalam gambar. Tujuan kita memfokus adalah untuk mendapatkan imej atau subjek yang cukup tajam dan jelas di dalam imej.Sebenarnya, sesebuah lens cuma boleh memfokus pada satu kawasan sahaja di dalam imej. Jadi cuma satu paras saja yang akan kelihatan tajam. Selebihnya dibahagian depan dan belakang titik focus ini akan kelihatan kabur (out of focus).

Teknik fokus dalam kamera adalah mudah saja

1. Tekan butang pelepas shutter separuh

Apabila anda menekan butang pelepas shutter separuh, kamera akan mengfokuskan lensa kepada subjek.

2. Lihat titik fokus dalam viewfinder.

Apabila operasi fokus telah selesai, titik fokus yang dipilih akan berkelip seketika, dan kamera akan berbunyi beep. Penunjuk subjek berada dalam fokus akan kelihatan dalam viewfinder.

Apabila butang pelepas shutter ditekan separuh, viewfinder akan memaparkan jumlah exposure yang boleh dirakam kedalam buffer memori.

Dalam waktu ini juga fokus akan dikunci kepada subjek sepanjang anda menekan butang pelepas shutter.

3. Susun semula komposisi anda (RECOMPOSE)

Sepanjang anda menekan separuh butang pelepas shutter, lensa akan tetap berada dalam fokus kepada subjek . Walaupun anda menukar komposisi dan subjek tidak lagi berada atas titik fokus, lensa tetap tidak akan mengubah fokus.

4. Tekan butang pelepas shutter sepenuhnya

Tips Fotografi : Antara JPEG, TIFF & RAW

Format Fail Gambar

Kebiasaannya DSLR akan menawarkan tiga format fail

Jpeg.
Singkatan untuk Joint Photographic Experts Group, kumpulan yang mencipta format ini. JPEG adalah format yang baik untuk gambar biasa kerana bersaiz kecil dan diterima oleh kebanyakkan software, pencetak, operating system dan web browser. Jpeg mudah di hantar kemana-mana menggunakan internet, telefon bimbit dan juga memory card.

Tiff
Tagged Image File Format. Tiff adalah format yang digunakan oleh para syarikat pencetak dan publication. Bersaiz besar, berbanding JPEG, boleh mencapai 5-10 kali ganda saiznya. Mempunyai kualiti gambar yang paling baik dan boleh diterima banyak pencetak

Raw
RAW merupakan format fail yang menyimpan kesemua rekod dan maklumat tentang rakaman. Fail RAW juga dikenali sebagai digital negative kerana fail imej tersebut perlu diproses sekiranya perlu digunakan.

Antara seting kamera yang kita boleh ubah selepas proses rakaman gambar dalam format RAW ialah:

v  Mod warna atau kawalan warna

v  White balance

v  Pengubahsuaian tona

v  Kepekatan warna

v  Ketajaman

v  Pengubahsuaian dedahan

v  Pengubahsuaian warna

v  Pengurangan Color Moire

v  Nyahhabuk pada imej

v  Aberasi warna automatic

v  Active D-Lighting

Berikut adalah kelebihan dan kekurangan rakaman dalam JPEG dan RAW

Kelebihan JPEG

  • Saiz fail yang lebih kecil
  • Lebih imej bagi setiap kad memori
  • Lebih pantas ditulis ke kad memori
  • Capaian terus kepada imej tanpa perlu penyuntingan

Kekurangan JPEG

  • Kamera memampatkan imej tersebut
  • Maklumat hilang kerana pemampatan
  • Kurang julat penyuntingan
  • Kurang fleksibel dengan kesilapan Jurugambar seperti dedahan, white balance.

 

Kelebihan RAW

  • Tiada pemampatan fail. Maklumat yang dirakam adalah sepenuhnya daripada sensor.
  • Kelebihan untuk manipulasi imej dalam perisian penyuntingan
  • Julat penyuntingan tona yang lebih tinggi.

 

Kekurangan RAW

  • Fail yang lebih besar
  • Kurang imej untuk setiap kad memory
  • Masa menulis kedalam kad yang lebih perlahan
  • Mesti mempunyai perisian penyuntingan yang sesuai.

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